Life cycle assessment
Figure 1. System diagram showing mass and energy flows in CO2 mineralization process. Source: Kirchofer et al. (2012).
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method used to estimate the total environmental impacts from producing a good or service. The full life cycle environmental impacts can be challenging to model, because modern production "pathways" can involve numerous interacting technologies, each of which can consume materials and energy that are themselves products of complex production processes. Our group aims to build rigorous, transparent models to allow for complete accounting of environmental impacts from energy technologies.
Our work focuses primarily on transportation fuels production from conventional and unconventional sources. A major result from these studies has been estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different transportation fuel pathways. Other recent work has been performed on LCA of carbon dioxide capture technologies.
LCA of conventional fuels production
Conventional liquid fuels production technologies have traditionally been modeled using simple pathway averages in full-fuel-cyle LCA models (such as the GREET and GHGenius models). While these pathway average emissions estimates are acceptable for the original uses of these LCA models, they are increasingly seen as too coarse for modern LCA applications, such as regulations that aim to reduce full-fuel-cycle emissions from transportation fuel pathways (e.g., California LCFS and EU Fuel Quality Directive). For this reason, we have built the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE), a tool to compute GHG emissions from conventional oil pathways.
See more about this research on the OPGEE page.
LCA of unconventional fuels production
Unconventional liquid fuel sources are increasingly important, given the challenges associated with increasing depletion of conventional oil resources. These unconventional fuel sources include bitumen deposits of Alberta and Venezuela, oil shale deposits of the Green River formation in Utah and Colorado, as well as shale oil and shale gas resources across North America. Our work involves building LCA models to understand the environmental impacts of shifting to use of these unconventional sources and research in the energy and greenhouse gas impacts of fuel production from bitumen extracted from the Alberta oil sands is in the 2014 update of GREET.
LCA of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies
Recent work has examined carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to understand their full system energy efficiency and emissions.
Horner, R.M., C.B. Harto, R.B. Jackson. E.R. Lowry, A.R. Brandt, T.W. Yeskoo, D.J. Murphy; C.E. Clark. (2016) Water use and management in the Bakken shale oil play of North Dakota Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04079;
Brandt, A.R. (2015). Embodied energy and GHG emissions from material use in conventional and unconventional oil and gas operations. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI:10.1021/acs.est.5b03540
H Cai, A.R. Brandt, S Yeh, J.G. Englander, J Han, A Elgowainy, M.Q. Wang (2015). Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for US Petroleum Fuels. Environmental science & technology. DOI:10.1021/acs.est.5b01255
Englander, JG, AR Brandt, A Elgowainy, H Cai, J Han, S Yeh, M.Q. Wang (2015). Oil sands energy intensity assessment using facility-level data. Energy & Fuels. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00175
Wallington, T.J., Anderson, J.E., De Kleine, R.D., Kim, H.C., Maas H., Winkler, S.L., Brandt, A.R., Keoleian, G.A. (2015). When comparing alternative fuel-vehicle systems, life cycle assessment studies should consider trends in oil production. Journal of Industrial Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12418
Brandt, A.R., Y. Sun, K. Vafi (2014). Uncertainty in regional-average petroleum GHG intensities: Countering information gaps with targeted data gathering. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es505376t
Vafi, K., A.R. Brandt (2014). Uncertainty of oil field GHG emissions resulting from information gaps: A Monte Carlo approach. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es502107s
Vafi K. and A.R. Brandt (2014) Reproducibility of LCA models of crude oil production. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es501847p
El-Houjeiri, H. M., A.R. Brandt, J.E. Duffy. (2012) Estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from oil production operations using detailed field characteristics. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es304570m
Englander, J., A.R. Brandt, S. Bharadwaj (2013). Historical trends in greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction. Environmental Research Letters. 8 044036
- Kirchofer, A. A.R. Brandt, S. Krevor, V. Priggiobe, J. Wilcox (2012) Impact of alkalinity sources on the life-cycle energy efficiency of mineral carbonation technologies Energy & Environmental Science, 2012 (5) 8631-8641
Brandt, A.R. (2011) Variability and uncertainty in life cycle assessment models for greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian oil sands production. Environmental Science & Technology 46(2): 1253-1261. DOI:10.1021/es202312p
Mulchandani, H., A.R. Brandt (2011). Oil shale as an energy resource in a CO2 constrained world: The concept of electricity production with in-situ carbon capture (EPICC). Energy & Fuels. 25(4): 1633-1641. DOI:10.1021/ef101714x
Brandt, A.R., S. Unnasch (2010). Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emissions from thermal enhanced oil recovery. Energy & Fuels. 24(8): 4581-4589. DOI:10.1021/ef100410f
Brandt, A.R., J. Boak, and A.K. Burnham (2010). Carbon dioxide emissions from oil shale derived liquid fuels, in Oil shale: A solution to the liquid fuels dilemma, O. Ogunsola, Ed. ACS Symposium Series 1032. American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2010-1032.ch011
Lemoine, D.M., R.J. Plevin, A.S. Cohn, A.D. Jones, A.R. Brandt, S.E. Vergara, D.M. Kammen. (2010). The climate impacts of bioenergy systems depend on market and regulatory contexts. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(19): 7347-7350. DOI: 10.1021/es100418p
Yeh, S., S.M. Jordaan, A.R. Brandt, M. Turetsky, S. Spatari, D. Keith (2010). Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional and unconventional oil production. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(22): 8766-8772. DOI:10.1021/es1013278
Brandt, A.R. (2009). Converting oil shale to liquid fuels with the Alberta Taciuk Processor: Energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy & Fuels 23(12): 6253-6258. DOI: 10.1021/ef900678d
Brandt, A.R. (2008). Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: Energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(19): 7489-7495. DOI: 10.1021/es800531f
Brandt, A.R. and A.E. Farrell (2007). Scraping the bottom of the barrel: CO2 emission consequences of a transition to low-quality and synthetic petroleum resources. Climatic Change,84(3-4): 241-263. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-007-9275-y