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Norman Sleep

Norman  Sleep
Title:Professor
Primary Affiliation:Department of Geophysics
Office Location:Mitchell Bldg  373A
Alternative Website:https://cap.stanford.edu/profiles/auth/frdActionServlet?choiceId=facProfile&fid=41466
Phone:650-723-0882
Fax:650-725-7344
E-mail:norm@stanford.edu

Research

I apply heat and mass transfer to physical processes within the Earth. I am currently studying convection at the base of the lithosphere and the interaction of the lithosphere with mantle plume material. Hot plume material locally thins the lithosphere and ponds within preexisting regions of thin lithosphere. I am also investigating the microphysics of friction. I am currently applying the results to nonlinear attenuation and ground damage by strong seismic waves. I am currently considering pre-photosynthetic sources of energy for life (like hydrogen from serpentine and methanogenesis) and the effects of photosynthetic ecology on surface and tectonic processes.

Teaching

I teach Geophysics 150. It is a beginning class for geophysics students and a summary class for geology majors. I vary the content depending on the clientele. I teach Geophysics 25 on planetary habitability. I will revamp the class to fit in the I-Earth sequence. I am actively involved in the crustal, stress, and earthquake seminars.

Professional Activities

2008 Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London; Election, National Academy of Sciences (1999); Walter H. Bucher Medal, American Geophysical Union (1998); Wegener Medal, European Union of Geosciences (1997); fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993); George P. Woollard Award, Geological Society of America (1991); fellow, Geological Society of America (1984); James B. Macelwane Award (1980); fellow, American Geophysical Union (1980)

Education

  • 1973 | Ph.D. Geophysics Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 1969 | M.S. Geophysics Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 1967 | B.S. Geology and Mathematics Michigan State University

Professional Experience

  • 1993 - Present | Professor of Geophysics Stanford University
  • 1984 - 1993 | Professor of Geophysics and Geology Stanford University
  • 1979 - 1984 | Associate Professor of Geophysics and Geology Stanford University
  • 1973 | Postdoctoral Research Associate Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 1973 - 1979 | Assistant Professor of Geophysics Northwestern University

Honors & Awards

  • 2008 | Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London
  • 1999 | Member, National Academy of Sciences
  • 1998 | Walter H. Bucher Medal, American Geophysical Union
  • 1997 | Wegener Medal, European Union of Geosciences
  • 1993 | Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • 1991 | George P. Woollard Award, Geological Society of America
  • 1984 | Fellow, Geological Society of America
  • 1980 | James B. Macelwane Award, American Geophysical Union
  • 1980 | Fellow, American Geophysical Union

University Service

  • 1992 - Present | Chair of Reading Committees for Ph.D. orals in Engineering, Physics,  Linguistics, Education, Geological and Environmental Sciences, and Geophysics
  • 1984 - 2001 | Member, Earth Sciences Library Committee

Professional Activities

  • 2011 - 2011 | Panel member NSF
  • 2009 - present | Member Committee on Earth Resources, National Research Council
  • 2004 - Present | Senior editor Astrobiology
  • 2000 | Chancellor's invited speaker, Louisiana State University
  • 1992 - Present | Outside Reviewer for Proposals from NSF, NASA, USGS, Petroleum Research Fund, and funding agencies in Israel, Australia, Czech Republic, France, Canada and the U.K.
  • 1989 - Present | Associate editor Earth and Planetary Science Letters
  • 1981 - Present | Associate Editor, Tectonophysics

Courses Taught

  • 2011 (Winter) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 4]
  • 2010 (Fall) | 25 Intro to Astrobiology [Enrolled 10]
  • 2010 (Spring) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 3]
  • 2009 (Winter) | 150 Gen Geophysics & Earth Physics [Enrolled 2]
  • 2009 (Winter) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 4]
  • 2009 (Winter) | 185E Tectonics [Enrolled 4]
  • 2009 (Fall) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 6]
  • 2009 (Fall) | 185E Tectonics [Enrolled  6]
  • 2009 (Spring) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 4]
  • 2009 (Fall) | 25 Intro to Astrobiology [Enrolled 14]
  • 2008 (Winter) | 150 Gen Geophysics & Earth Physics [Enrolled 7]
  • 2008 (Winter) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 2]
  • 2008 (Fall) | 25 Intro to Astrobiology [Enrolled 4]
  • 2007 (Fall) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 3]
  • 2007 (Fall) | 25 Intro to Astrobiology [Enrolled 3]
  • 2007 (Winter) | 150 Gen Geophysics & Earth Physics [Enrolled 6]
  • 2007 (Winter) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 1]
  • 2006 (Spring) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 4]
  • 2006 (Winter) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 6]
  • 2006 (Winter) | 150 Geophysics & Physics of the Earth (w/ Klemperer) [Enrolled 2]
  • 2006 (Fall) | 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 6]
  • 2006 (Fall) | 25 Introduction to Astrobiology [Enrolled 3]
  • 2005 | GP 150 General GP & Earth Physics w/Klemperer [Enrolled 9]
  • 2005 | GP 185/385E Tectonics w/Klemperer [Enrolled 5]
  • 2005 | GP 25 Planetary Habitability [Enrolled 3]
  • 2004 | GP 185E / 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 8]
  • 2004 | GP 185E / 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 5]
  • 2004 | GP 385E Tectonics [Enrolled 5]
  • 2004 | GP 150 General Geophysics and Earth Physics [Enrolled 1]
  • 2002 | GP150 General Geophysics and Earth Physics (with Klemperer) [Enrolled 4]
  • 2002 | GP385E Tectonics (with Klemperer, Thompson) [Enrolled 11]
  • 2001 | GP150 General Geophysics (with Klemperer) [Enrolled 6]
  • 2001 | GP385 Tectonics (with Klemperer and Thompson) [Enrolled 4]
  • 2001 | GP234 Planetary and Early Life (with Lowe) [Enrolled 4]
  • 2001 | GES134 Planetary and Early Life (with Lowe) [Enrolled 16]
  • 2001 | GES134 Planetary and Early Life (with Lowe) [Enrolled 12]
  • 2001 | GP385 Tectonics (with Klemperer and Thompson) [Enrolled 2]
  • 2001 | GP234 Planetary and Early Life (with Lowe) [Enrolled 4]
  • 2001 | GP134 Planetary and Early Life (with Lowe) [Enrolled 2]
  • 2001 | GP385 Tectonics (with Klemperer) [Enrolled 1]
  • 2000 | GP150 General Geophysics [Enrolled 5]
  • 2000 | GP185 Tectonics (with Thompson) [Enrolled 1]
  • 2000 | GP385 Tectonics (with Thompson) [Enrolled 6]
  • 1999 | GP385 Tectonics (with Klemperer and Thompson) [Enrolled 3]
  • 1999 | GP150 General Geophysics (with Klemperer) [Enrolled 8]
  • 1998 | GP385 Tectonics (with Klemperer and Thompson) [Enrolled 1]
  • 1998 | -- Sabbatical leave

Publications

  • 2012 *| Sleep, N. H., Site Resonance from Strong Ground Motions at Lucerne, California, during the 1992 Landers Mainshock. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 102, No. 4,  in press,  doi: 10.1785/0120110267.
  • 2012 *| Sleep, N. H., Maintenance of permeable habitable  subsurface environments by earthquakes and tidal stresses, International Journal of Astrobiology, in press, doi:10.1017/S1473550412000122.
  • 2012 *| Sleep, N. H., Site Resonance from Strong Ground Motions at Lucerne, California, during the 1992 Landers Mainshock, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 109, Issue 1, pp. 59-62, Q12001, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1118675109. 
  • 2012 *| Sleep, N. H., Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 109, Issue 1, pp. 59-62, Q12001, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1118675109. 
  • 2011 *| Sleep, N. H., Deep-seated downslope slip during strong seismic shaking, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, Vol. 12, Q12001, DOI: 10.1029/2011GC003838.
  • 2011 *| Sleep, N. H., Seismically damaged regolith as self-organized fragile geological feature, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, Vol. 12, Q12013,  DOI:10.1029/2011GC003837.
  • 2011 *| Sleep, N. H., Seismically observable features of mature stagnant‐lid convection at the base of the lithosphere: Some scaling relationships, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q10018, doi:10.1029/2011GC003760.
  • 2011 *| Sleep N. H.; D. K. Bird, E. C. Pope, Serpentinite and the dawn of life.  Philo. Trans. R.L S. B-Biol. Sci.  366(1580), 2857-2869.   DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0129.
  • 2011 *| Abe, Y., A. Abe-Ouchi, N. H. Sleep, K. J. Zahnle, Habitable zone limits for dry planets. Astrobiology, 11(5), 443-460, DOI: 10.1089/ast.2010.0545.
  • 2011 * | Sleep, N. H., Small-scale convection beneath oceans and continents. Chi. Sci. Bull.,  56(13), 1292-1317,  DOI: 10.1007/s11434-011-4435-x.
  • 2010 * | Rosing, M. T.,D. K. Bird, N. H. Sleep, and C. J. Bjerrum, No climate paradox under the faint early Sun. Nature, 464, 744-749, doi:10.1038/nature08955.
  • 2010 * | Sleep, N. H. Application of rate and state friction formalism and flash melting to thin permanent slip zones of major faults, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11, Q05007, DOI: 10.1029/2009GC002997.
  • 2010 * | Sleep. N. H. Strong seismic shaking of randomly prestressed brittle rocks, rock damage, and nonlinear attenuation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11, Q10002, DOI: 10.1029/2010GC003229.
  • 2010  | Sleep, N. H. The Hadean-Archaean Environment, Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in biology, 2, a002527. DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a002527.
  • 2010 * | Sleep, N. H. Nonlinear Behavior of Strong Surface Waves Trapped in Sedimentary Basins. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Apr 2010; 100: 826 - 832. DOI: 10.1785/0120090150.
  • 2010 * | Sleep, N. H.  Sudden and gradual compaction of shallow brittle porous rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 115: B08210, doi:10.1029/2009JB006719.
  • 2009 * | Sleep, N. H. Depth of Rock Damage from Strong Seismic Ground Motions near the 2004 Parkfield Mainshock, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America; October 2009; v. 99; no. 5; p. 3067-3076; DOI: 10.1785/0120090065.
  • 2009 * | Sleep, N. H. (2009), Stagnant lid convection and carbonate metasomatism of the deep continental lithosphere, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, Q11010, doi:10.1029/2009GC002702.
  • 2009 * | Sleep, N. H.Anthropic Knots and the Rise of Life. Astrobiology. March 2009, 9(2): 251-252. doi:10.1089/ast.2008.0927.
  • 2009 *| Tarduno, J. H.-P. Bunge, N. Sleep, and U. Hansen Science 3 April 2009: Vol. 324. no. 5923, pp. 50 - 53, DOI: 10.1126/science.1161256.
  • 2009 * | Sleep, N. H. (2009), Stagnant lid convection and the thermal subsidence of sedimentary basins with reference to Michigan, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, Q12015, doi:10.1029/2009GC002881.
  • 2009 * | Goldblatt, C., K. J. Zahnle, N. H. Sleep, and E. G. Nisbet, The Eons of Chaos and Hades. Solid Earth Discuss., 1, 47–53, 2009
  • 2008 * | Sleep, N. H., and S. Ma, Production of brief extreme ground acceleration pulses by nonlinear mechanisms in the shallow subsurface, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q03008, doi:10.1029/2007GC001863.
  • 2008 * | Sleep, N. H. Channeling at the base of the lithosphere during the lateral flow of plume material beneath flow line hot spots, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Q08005, doi:10.1029/2008GC002090.
  • 2008 * | Sleep, N. H., and P. Hagin Nonlinear attenuation and rock damage during strong seismic ground motions, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q10015, doi:10.1029/2008GC002045.
  • 2008 * | Sleep, N. H. and D. K. Bird Evolutionary ecology during the rise of dioxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B, vol. 363. p. 2651-2664.
  • 2007 * | Sleep, N. H. and D. K. Bird, Niches of the pre-photosynthetic biosphere and geologic preservation of Earth’s earliest ecology, Geobiology, v. 5, pp. 101-117.
  • 2007 * | Sleep, N. H., Plate tectonics through time, Treatise on Geophysics Volume 9, G. Schubert (ed.), Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 101-117.
  • 2007 * | Zahnle, K., N. Arndt, C. Cockell, A. Halliday, E. Nisbet, F. Selsis, and N. H. Sleep, Emergence of a Habitable Planet, Space Science Reviews, v. 129, pp. 35-78.
  • 2007 * | Sleep, N. H. Origins of the plume hypothesis and some of its implications, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 430, eds. G. R. Foulger and D. M. Jurdy, p. 29-45.
  • 2007 * | Hagin P., N. H. Sleep, M. D. Zoback, Application of rate-and-state friction laws to creep compaction of unconsolidated sand under hydrostatic loading conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05420, doi:10.1029/2006JB004286.
  • 2007 * | Sleep, N. H., Edge-modulated stagnant-lid convection and volcanic passive margins, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q12004, doi:10.1029/2007GC001672.
  • 2007 * | Sleep, N. H., Weak thermal convection within tilted plume conduits, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q11005, doi:10.1029/2007GC001680. 2007 * Sleep, N. H., and M. D. Zoback, 2007, Did Earthquakes Keep the Early Crust Habitable?, Astrobiology, 7(6), 1023-1032.
  • 2006 * | Sleep, N.H., and A.M. Hessler, Weathering of quartz as an Archean climatic indicator, Earth Planetary Sci. Lett., v. 241, p. 594-602.
  • 2006 * | Rosing, M. T., D. K. Bird, N. H. Sleep, W. Glassley, , and F. Albarede, The rise of continents - An essay on the geologic consequences of photosynthesis, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, v. 232(2-4), p. 99-113.
  • 2006 | Zahnle, K. J., and N. H. Sleep, Impacts and the early evolution of life, in Comets and the Origin and Evolution of Life, 2nd ed., edited by P. J. Thomas, R. D. Hicks, C. F. Chyba, and C. P. McKay, pp. 207-251, Springer, New York.
  • 2006 * | Sleep, N. H., Real contacts and evolution laws for rate and state friction, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., v. 7: Art. No. Q08012.
  • 2006 * | Sleep, N.H., Frictional dilatancy, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., v. 7: Art. No. Q10008.
  • 2006 * | Sleep, N. H., Strategy for Applying Neutrino Geophysics to the Earth Sciences Including Planetary Habitability, Earth, Moon, and Planets, v. 99, p. 343-358, DOI 10.1007/s11038-006-9103-9.
  • 2006 * | Sleep, N. H., Mantle plumes from top to bottom, Earth-Science Rev., v. 77(4), p. 231-271.
  • 2005 * | Sleep, N. H., Evolution of continental lithosphere, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 33, 369-393.
  • 2005 | Sleep, N. H., Dioxygen over geological time, Chapter 3 of Biogeochemical Cycles of Elements, Volume 43 of Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Edited by A. Sigel, H. Sigel, and R. K. O. Sigel, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 49-73.
  • 2005 * | Meibom, A., Sleep, N.H., Zahnle, K., and Anderson, D.L., Models for noble gases in mantle geochemistry: Some observations and alternatives, in Foulger, G.R., Natland, J.H., Presnall, D.C., and Anderson, D.L., eds., Plates, plumes, and paradigms: Geological Society of America Special Paper 388, p. 347-363.
  • 2005 * | Sleep, N. H., Physical basis of evolution laws for rate and state friction, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., v. 6, p. Q11008, doi:10.1029/2005GC000991.
  • 2005 | Fitzenz, D. D., A. Jalobeanu, S. H. Hickman, and N.H. Sleep, Integrated laboratory compaction data with numerical fault models: a Beyesian framework, in Knuth, K.H., Abbas, A.E., Morris, R.D., and Castle, J.P., eds., Baynesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering: AIP Conference Proceedings 803, p. 483-490.
  • 2004 * | Meibom, A., Frei, R. and Sleep, N. H., Osmium isotopic compositions of Os-rich platinum group element alloys from the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains. J. Geophys. Res., v. 109, B02203, doi:10.1029/2003JB002602.
  • 2004 * | Sleep, N. H., Thermal haloes around plume tails. Geophys. J. Int; v.156, p.359-362.
  • 2004 * | Sleep, N. H., Meibom, A., Fridriksson, Th., Coleman, R. G., and Bird, D. K., H2-rich fluids from serpentinization: Geochemical and biotic implications. PNAS., v. 101, pp. 12818-12823
  • 2003 * | Sleep, N. H., Survival of Archean cratonal lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res., v. 107, (2001B000169).
  • 2003 * | Meibom, A., Anderson, D. L., Sleep, N. H., Frei, R.., Chamberlain, C. P., Hren, M. T. and Wooden, J. L., Are high He-3/He-4 ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 208, pp. 197-204.
  • 2003 | Nisbet, E. G., and N. H. Sleep, The Physical Setting for Early Life, in Evolution on Planet Earth, edited by L. J. Rothschild and A. M. Lister, pp.3-34, Academic Press, Amsterdam.
  • 2003 * | Sleep, N. H., Fate of mantle plume material trapped within a lithospheric catchment with reference to Brazil. Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems. v. 4 (2002GC000464). 2003 * Sleep, N. H., Geodynamic implications of xenolith geotherms. Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems, v. 4 (2003GC000511).
  • 2003 * | Nyblade, A. A., and N. H. Sleep, Long lasting epeirogenic uplift from mantle plumes and the origin of the Southern African Plateau. Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems, v. 4 (2003GC000573)
  • 2003 * | Sleep, N. H., Simple features of mantle-wide convection and the interpretation of lower-mantle tomograms (Les traits simples de la convection du manteau entier et líinterprÈtation des tomogrammes du manteau infÈrieur). Comptes Rendus Geosciences, v. 335(1), pp. 9-22
  • 2002 * | Sleep, N. H., Self-organization of crustal faulting and tectonics. Int. Geol. Rev., v. 44, pp. 83-96. 2002 * Sleep, N. H., Ridge-crossing mantle plumes and gaps in tracks. Geochem. Geophys., Geosystems, v. 3 (2001GC000290).
  • 2002 * | Sleep, N. H., Local lithospheric relief associated with fracture zones and ponded plume material. Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems, v. 3 (2001GC000376).
  • 2002 * | Meibom, A., Sleep, N. H., Chamberlain, C. P., Coleman, R. G., Frei, R., Hren, M. T., and Wooden, J. L., Re-Os isotopic evidence for long-lived heterogeneity and euilibration processes in the Earth's upper mantle. Nature, v. 418, pp. 705-708.
  • 2002 * | Sleep. N. H., Ebinger, C. J., and Kendall, J.-M., Defection of mantle plume material by cratonic keels, in The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development, edited by C. M. R. Fowler, Geological Society London, Spec. Pub. 199, pp. 135-150.
  • 2002 * | Zahnle, K., and Sleep. N. H., Defection of mantle plume material by cratonic keels, in The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical andBiological Development, edited by C. M. R. Fowler, Geological Society London, Spec. Pub. 199, pp. 231-231.
  • 2001 * | Sleep, N. H. and Zahnle, K. Carbon dioxide cycling and implications for climate on ancient Earth. J. Geophys.Res., v.106, pp. 1373-1399.
  • 2001 * | Sleep, N. H. Zahnle, K. and Neuhoff, P. S. Initiation of clement surface conditions on the early Earth. PNAS.,v.98,pp.3666-3672.
  • 2001 * | Nisbet, E. G. and Sleep, N. H., The habitat and nature of early life. Nature, v.409, pp.1083-1091.
  • 2000 * | Sleep, N. H., E. Richardson, and C. Marone. Physics of friction and strain rate localization in synthetic fault gouge. J. Geophysics Res., v. 105, pp. 25,875-25,890.
  • 2000 * | Sleep, N. H. Evolution of the mode of convection with terrestrial planets. J. Geophys. Res., v. 105, pp. 17,563-17,578.
  • 1999 * | Sleep, N. H. Effects of the extrusion of fault gouge on frictional sliding. J. Geophysics Res. v. 104, pp. 23,023-23,032.
  • 1999 * | Sleep, N. H. Rate- and state-dependent friction of intact rock and gouge. J. Geophysics Res., v. 104, pp. 17,847-17,855.
  • 1998 * | Ebinger, C. J. and N. H. Sleep. Cenozoic magmatism throughout East Africa resulting from impact of a single plume. Nature, v. 395, pp. 788-791.
  • 1998 * | Sleep, N. H. and K. Zahnle. Regugia from asteroid impacts on early Mars and the early Earth. J. Geophys. Res., v. 103, pp. 28,529-28,544.
  • 1998 * | Sleep, N. H. Rate dependent rate and state friction. J. Geophys. Res., v. 103, pp. 7111-7119.

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