Geothermal Energy Use - Country Update for Slovakia
Branislav FRIČOVSKÝ, Radovan ČERNÁK, Daniel MARCIN, Veronika BLANÁROVÁ, Katarína BENKOVÁ, Ondrej PELECH, Klement FORDINÁL, Dušan BODIŠ and Marián FENDEK
[Dionyz Stur State institute of Geology, Slovakia]
Slovakia is a part of the Western Carpathians realm, an orogeny controlling geothermic activity of the territory through geological development, geodynamics and deep geological structure. Because of any recent volcanic activities, the entire territory of the country is of a moderate geothermic activity, with mean surface heat flow density of 82.1 mW.m-2. Low to moderate enthalpy (up to 150 °C) single-phase, geothermal waters have been successfully sampled of low, to moderate-low thermodynamic quality. Recently carried actions in reconstruction of geothermal energy database have documented 236 wells successfully sampling thermal waters at wellhead temperatures of Twh = 18 – 135 °C, deliverability up to Q = 100 l.s-1 and proven thermal capacity of 437 MWth since 1970’s. Until 2019, 6,233 MWth were assessed as probable. In 2017 (the last complete data accessible – see text for explanations), 114 wells were in active operation at a nameplate capacity of 229 MWth, generating 0.53 TWh,th of thermal energy and 1,988 TJ of heat. Only direct use projects are online. This does not account for large-scale heat pumps and small GSHP / BHE installations as relevant data are not available. In total, 86 wells support 48 sites where geothermal water is used for recreation and balneology, leading sectoral geothermal energy use in the country by far (1,118 GWh,th and 1,325 TJ). Since 2016, four hybrid (geothermal – natural gas) district heating plants are in operation based on 5 geothermal wells in towns of Galanta, Šaľa, Veľký Meder and Sereď (44 GWh,th and 159 TJ). Geothermal space heating and cooling is realized at 10 sites with optional cascades (75 GWh,th, 273 TJ), while 13 wells produce geothermal waters at 12 sites for greenhousing purposes (63 GWh,th, 230 TJ). A mean total load factor for all geothermal wells under recent production is 0.302. Since the last Country Update, only three new wells were commissioned in Púšť, Poľný Kesov and Veľký Meder. No power production projects are officially in a process of licensing in the country. Several research projects are recently running with a support of the EU and the Government (Ministry of Environment) on hydrogeothermal evaluation (e.g. the Komárno High Block and the Komárno Marginal Block), sustainable management optimization (the Ďurkov depression) and shallow geothermal energy use, such is the GeoPLASMA-CE and MUSE (Interreg-CE and H2020). By July 2019 together 13 private-sector held claims on geothermal prospection areas were active e.g. in Vlčany, Lovča, Teriakovce, however data on realized actions are not accessible.
|        Topic: Country Updates||Paper Number: 01024|